Indent five spaces to begin paragraphs. Double-space the text of your paper. Pagination: Number all pages of your paper in the upper right corner, one-half inch from the top. Do not write or p.
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The number should appear by itself with no punctuation. General format and title page: Your research paper needs to be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper 8. Use one to one-and-a-half inch margins on all four sides of each page.
How to Write a Research Proposal in the APA Style | Pen and the Pad
A running head on this page is not necessary unless you are submitting your paper for publication. At the top of your title page, flush right and one-half inch from the top edge of the paper inside your top margin , you will write what is called a "manuscript header.
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Your title will appear centered on this page, written in capital and lower-case letters. If your title extends past one line, double-space between lines. Your name will appear centered and in capital and lower-case letters one double-spaced line below your title.
Your university name Oregon State University will be placed one double-spaced line below your name. If you are a communication major, you also will include below the institution's name the title of your department. For example:. Following your title page, the remainder of your paper should be placed in the following order:. The pages of your manuscript should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page, as part of the manuscript header in the upper right corner of each page.
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Your references should begin on a separate page from the text of the paper under the label "References" with no quotation marks, underlining, etc. Appendices and notes should be formatted similarly. Headings: APA style prescribes five heading levels, but they vary according to the length of your paper. If you are writing a formal piece to be submitted to an undergraduate conference, closely consult the APA style book. For class papers, ask for your professor's preference. If no preference is given, follow the suggestions written in this section under MLA.
Margins and spacing: Leave margins of at least one inch on all sides of your paper. Page numbers will appear within the top margin, but no other text should extend into the margins. Indent five to seven spaces to begin paragraphs. Pagination: Page numbers should be placed in the top margin one inch from the right side of the paper. Skip to main content. Toggle menu Go to search page.
Search Field. What's the purpose of a style manual? How do I choose a style manual for my paper?
sofromerligh.gq How do I get started planning a research paper? Help the reader see where you are going and why you are going there. Active voice: In general, use active rather than passive voice. For example, instead of saying "data were collected by psychology students" say "psychology students collected data. Clarity: Avoid clutter. Remove unnecessary words and phrases. Avoid rambling and repetition. Avoid awkward sentences.
Read the sentence aloud to make sure it makes sense. Avoid run-on sentences. Again, read the sentence aloud to see where you need to put a period. Use commas and semi-colons appropriately. Avoid overly informal language that is better suited for conversation. Avoid jargon meant to impress the reader.
Use technical jargon only when it is both necessary and effective. Choose specific words that create a clear and precise meaning. Style: Vary your sentence length and structure. The paper should flow and engage the reader. You get the picture. In general, be aware of how your word choice characterizes people by age, religion, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, etc.
Avoid Plagiarism: This goes without saying, but people sometimes inadvertently plagiarize material particularly when they are writing papers at the last minute! Give yourself plenty of time to read and process the material before writing about it. Also, Be sure you know what plagiarism is.
Writing a Review of the Literature
Using someone's exact words without putting them in quotes, even if you cite the author, is plagiarism. Sloppily paraphrasing someone's words can also lead to plagiarism, even if you cite the source. When taking notes, it is helpful to summarize the material in your own words rather than copying directly. Make sure you give credit to any sources you used.
Direct quotes: Quotes should be used sparingly, if at all. Research proposals and reports rarely use quotes. If you do decide to use a direct quote, choose only those that are particularly powerful and eloquent and that can't be substituted. Proofread your paper before turning it in! Check the paper over for organization, clarity, style, etc. Also, make sure the paper is free of typos and grammatical errors. Return to top of page Writing a Review of the Literature A review of the literature is a fundamental part of any research paper, including proposals and reports.
A typical research paper requires students to choose a topic and cite a certain number of sources.
A research proposal or report requires a more rigourous review of the literature to justify the study. More in-depth reviews of the literature are found in review articles. Students in Psy often have the option of doing either a research study or a literature review, and such reviews should be modeled after the more comprehensive style of the review article.
Review articles not only provide a comprehensive summary, but also identify commonalities and gaps in the literature.
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